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Table 8 Realization rates of [Z], [G], and [L] in previous literature and the current study. Numbers in parentheses indicate combined percentages of [L] and [D]. Chen’s 陳雅玲 (2010, 2012) realization rates were indicated by ranges instead of averages because multiple locations were sampled. For studies examining multiple age groups, the age groups that are the most comparable to the speakers in this study were selected. As a consequence, the teenage groups of Ang 洪惟仁 (2003, 2012) and Chen 陳雅玲 (2010, 2012), and the young group of Khng 康韶真 (2014) were used as comparison. Please see text for explanation. +R: rounded environment; −R: unrounded environment

From: On the dialectal variations of voiced sibilant /dz/ in Taiwan Min young speakers

  [Z] [G] [L]
+R −R +R −R +R −R
Chiang Ang 洪惟仁 (2003, 2012)a 21% 31% 3% 79% 66%
This study 8% 17% 4% 71% (79%) 38% (79%)
Chôan Ang 洪惟仁 (2003, 2012)a 4% 3% 0% 96% 97%
This study 6% 0% 0% 72% (78%) 61% (100%)
Mix Chen 陳淑娟 (1995)b 30% 23% 50% 70% 27%
Chen陳雅玲 (2010, 2012) 0~26% 0~18% 54~83%
Khng 康韶真 (2014) 15% 20% 65%
This study 6% 25% 31% 78% (89%) 31% (44%)
  1. aAng 洪惟仁 (2003, 2012) included both syllables with and without nasals in his research. However, since this study did not include syllables with nasals in the rounded environment, calculations were based only on syllables without nasals in this context to make the results more comparable
  2. bChen 陳淑娟 (1995) only provided overall data and data for unrounded environments. Data for rounded environments were reconstructed accordingly